Rules of English Grammar

There are several rules of using comma & colon. Here some tips which will help everyone to develop proper use of comma & colon.


COMMA


1. The use of a comma before “and” in a series is usually
optional, provided there is no danger of misreading.

Example: We have apple, orange and grape juices.
(no comma)

Example: We have apple, orange, and strawberry and
grape juices.
(comma)

“Strawberry and grape” is one flavor; therefore, a
comma is needed to avoid confusion.


2. Use a comma after an introductory phrase or clause.

Example: After I realized that the store had not
applied my discount voucher to my purchase, I
returned to the store and customer service credited
my account.


3. Use a comma to join independent clauses.

Example: I went to the grocery store to pick up some
milk, but they were already closed.
(commas with two independent clauses)

Example: I offered to help and she accepted.
(comma unnecessary with short clauses)


4. Do not use a comma before the first item or after the
last item in a series.

Example: [Wrong] You should combine, aerobics,
weight training and stretching into your workout
routine, if you want to see the best results.

Example: [Right] You should combine aerobics,
weight training and stretching into your workout
routine if you want to see the best results.


COLON


1. Colons should only be used within a sentence after an
independent clause.

Example: We visited three cities during our vacation:
San Diego, Los Angeles and Santa Barbara.


2. Do not place a colon between a verb and its object or
between a preposition and its object.

Example: [Wrong] We traveled to: San Diego, Los
Angeles and Santa Barbara.
(colon between preposition and object)

Example: [Right] We traveled to San Diego, Los
Angeles and Santa Barbara.

Example: [Wrong] My neighbor lent me: a garden hoe,
a shovel and a rake.
(colon between verb and objects)

Example: [Right] My neighbor lent me a garden hoe,
a shovel and a rake.

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